St Mary’s, Staindrop, County Durham

It was a visit to St Mary’s Church, Staindrop, County Durham, that sparked my passion for photographing church monuments combining history and sculpture.

Staindrop contains the tomb of Ralph, 1st Earl Westmoreland, and his two wives: Margaret Stafford and Joan Beaufort.

What I hadn’t known before my visit is that it also contained the tomb of William Harry Vane, 1st Duke Cleveland,  sculpted by Richard Westmacott; one of his finest works.

Tomb of William Harry Vane, 1st Duke Cleveland

William Harry Vane, 1746-182, a great great grandson of King Charles II. William Harry’s paternal grandfather Henry Vane, 1705-1758, married Grace Stewart, the daughter of Charles Stewart, 1st Duke Southampton, the illegitimate son of King Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess Cleveland, 1640-1709.

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Effigy of William Harry Vane, 1st Duke Cleveland, 1766-1842, at St Mary’s Church, Staindrop, County, Durham. Sculpted by Richard Westmacott.

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The arms of William Harry Vane being Vane: three gauntlets sinister (left) indicating either illegitimacy or attainder, and Charles, Duke of Grafton, illegitimate son of King Charles II England differenced by a baton sinister to indicate illegitimacy.

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Ralph Neville, 1st Earl Westmoreland

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl Westmoreland, 1364-1425, the progenitor of the Neville family as a result of his having 22 children, 73 grandchildren, 153 great grandchildren and 211 great great grandchildren. A number only exceeded by John of Gaunt.

Ralph’s first wife Margaret Stafford, 1364-1396, was his second cousin once removed and his fourth cousin. They had eight children together.

After Margaret’s death in 1396 he married Joan Beaufort, 1379-1440, granddaughter of Edward III. She and Ralph had fourteen children together.

Given the number of descendants it is not surprising that some were Lancastrians and some Yorkist during the Wars of the Roses:

John, Baron Neville, 1410-1461. Lancastrian. Killed at Battle of Towton.

Humphrey of Brancepeth, c 1439-1469. Lancastrian. Beheaded.

Charles -1449 brother of Humphrey). Lancastrian. Beheaded.

Ralph Dacre, 1st Baron Gilsland, 1412-1461. Lancastrian. Killed at Battle of Towton.

John “Butcher” Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford, 1435-1461. Lancastrian. Killed at Battle of Dintingdale.

Roger Clifford, 1447-1485. Beheaded.

Richard Neville, 5th Earl Salisbury, 1400-1460. Yorkist. Beheaded after Battle of Wakefield.

Richard “Kingmaker Neville, Earl Warwick and Salisbury, 1428-1471. Yorkist and Lancastrian. Killed Battle of Barnet.

His descendants also include King Edward IV, King Richard III, King Henry VIII, King Edward VI, Queens Mary and Elizabeth, and all of the English and British monarchs since James I King England.

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Memorial to Sophia Poulett

Sophia being the wife of William Harry’s son Henry, 2nd Duke Cleveland.

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Richard Redman, 1350-1426, All Saints Harewood

Another of the six fine chest tombs at All Saints, Harewood: Richard Redman, 1350-1426 and his wife Elizabeth Aldeburgh, died 1426.

Soldier and High Sheriff he campaigned with Richard II in Ireland. In 1405 he was commissioned to fine members of the gentry associated with the rebellion by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. He was, briefly, Speaker of the House of Commons during the eight day Parliament that voted supplies to continue the war in France shortly after the Battle of Agincourt in Oct 1415.

His armour of Period III: Lancastrian or Early Plate. An Esses collar although interwoven with another device. Moustache. Bascinet with orle. Helm with horses head crest; no mantling. Eagle buckle on belt. Feet on lion.

She wearing an elaborate crespine headdress.

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William Gascoigne, 1452-1487, All Saints, Harewood

Another of the six chest tombs from All Saints, Harewood, another William Gascoigne, 1452-1487, with his wife Margaret Percy, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Northumberland.

They, William and Margaret, half second cousins once removed.

William a 4 x Great Grandson of Edward III through his mother Joan Neville, great granddaughter of Ralph, 1st Earl Westmoreland, and his second wife Joan Beaufort, grand daughter of Edward III.

William and Margaret had twelve children, three sons, nine daughters.

A alabaster chest tomb with a fine array of weepers, possibly their children although too many, women one side, nine men the other, one of which appears with angels wings, possible children and spouses.

He wearing a variation of the Lancastrian Esses collar being SOSOS. Clean shaved, no bascinet, his head resting on a helm with bulls head creat. His armour plate over which there appears to be, unusually for the period, a tabard. The left hand side of his face appears disfigured. Possibly a war wound.

She wearing the widow’s barbe.

Note. Gardner describes this monument as being to Sir John Nevill of Womersley, died 1482.

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William Gascoigne 1465, Harewood

One of six chest tombs at All Saints Church, Harewood, formerly known as Gawthorpe Hall.

William Gascoigne and his wife Margaret Clarell.

His armour of Period IV: Wars of the Roses. Fluted plate armour with fine detail of the ribbons that held pauldrons and coudes in place. Yorkist collar of suns and roses. His bare head, with finely detailed hair, and no facial hair, rests on an unusual helm which appears to be the face of a lady, with an orle. Below the waist faulds and tasses under which mail may be seen.

She, on his right, with a widows pleated barbe (from the French for beard) drawn up to her chin. At the finely carved end of her dress two dogs, one pulling at the folds.

Both rest on a chest tomb with finely detailed weepers on each side.

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Cartmel Priory

John, 1st Baron Harrington and Margaret Dacre

Tomb of John, 1st Baron Harrington, died 02 Jun 1347, and his second wife Margaret aka Joan Dacre. A minor when he succeeded he became a ward of William Dacre whose daughter Margaret he subsequently married.

Knighted in 22 May 1306 in Oct 1309 he accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales on a trip to Scotland. He subsequently became an MP from 1326 to 1347.

He had three children. One of his great grandchildren William was appointed the 123rd Knight of the Garter in 1415 having fought at the Battle of Agincourt in Oct 1415.

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Frederick Cavendish

Memorial to Frederick Cavendish, son of William Cavendish, 7th Duke Devonshire, who, having been appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, was assassinated immediately after his arrival 06 May 1882 in Dublin; the Phoenix Park Killings.

Sculpture by Thomas Woolner.

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Edward Cavendish

Memorial to Edward Cavendish, youngest son of William Cavendish, 7th Duke Devonshire. His son became Victor Christian William became 9th Duke of Devonshire.

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Cartmel Priory Interior

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St Andrew’s Church, Greystoke, Cumbria

I took a detour on a recent trip to Carlisle to visit St Andrew’s Church, Greystoke, Cumbria, to see the two effigies of the Greystoke Family: William, 2nd Baron Greystoke, and his grandson John, 4th Baron Greystoke. Both effigies, much damaged, have some interesting features.

William, 2nd Baron Greystoke

William died in 1359 at Brancepeth Castle. His effigy typical of the Edwardian, or Camail and Jupon Period. On his head he wears the pointed bascinet with a camail (or aventail) ie the curtain of mail suspended from the helmet and falling over the shoulders to protect the neck. The jupon under which his coat of chain mail may be seen. His sword belt is low on his jupon, horizontal. He appears to have a moustache.

His funeral was attended by Roger 5th Baron Clifford (William’s son Ralph, who had become Roger’s ward after his father’s death, married Roger’s daughter Catherine in 1377) and Henry Scrope 1st Baron Masham reflecting his status in northern England.

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John, 4th Baron Greystoke

John, 4th Baron Greystoke died in 1426. His armour is typical of the Lancastrian or Early Plate Period; plate armour has replaced the camail and jupon.

His pauldrons (shoulder plates), are unusual in their style. His arms are fully encased in plate with a couter (or coude) protecting the elbow joint. Fine detail of the straps that held the armour in place may be seen on the underarms.

A gorget, or neck armour, has replaced the camail.

His head is, very unusually, bare as is his face, his hair cut in the style so typical of portraits of Henry V. Gardner1 states “It is a remarkable fact that before 1440 the bare-headed warrior is almost unknown, while after 1455 the helmeted knight is almost equally rare”. This may suggest the effigy was made somewhat after John’s death or, possibly, that the effigy has been incorrectly assigned.

His head rests on the decorated tournament helm.

He wears the Lancastrian SS collar. John had supported the usurpation of Richard II by Henry IV in the 1390s; staunch Lancastrians. John had married, in 1407, Elizabeth Ferrers, daughter of Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III.

Two sword belts: diagonal (bawdric) and horizontal. The jupon, beneath the waist has been replaced by a fauld; horizontal strips of metal that wrap around.

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Weepers

The Weepers, of which few are left, would have decorated the sides of the chest tomb on which John’s effigy would have lain. They are somewhat reminiscent of those of the tomb of Alice de la Pole at Ewelme, Oxfordshire although she died much later in 1475.

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The two effigies as they are now. Note the nearer, William may have been incorrectly placed in the canopy.

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1 Gardner. Alabaster Tombs of the Pre-Reformation Period in England

Carlisle Cathedral

 

Carlisle Cathedral may be the shortest cathedral as a result of its Norman Nave having been demolished in the Civil War for stone for the castle but what remains is superb in particular the memorials including a Hamo Thorneycroft and a Lucchesi.

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Sculpture by John Adams-Acton, 1872, of Samuel Waldegrave, 57th Bishop of Carlisle.

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Sculpture by Henry Hugh Armstead, 1885, of Francis Close, 25 years Dean of Carlisle.

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Sculpture by Hamo Thornycroft, 1894, of Harvey Goodwin, 58th Bishop of Carlisle.

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