St Mary’s, Staindrop, County Durham

It was a visit to St Mary’s Church, Staindrop, County Durham, that sparked my passion for photographing church monuments combining history and sculpture.

Staindrop contains the tomb of Ralph, 1st Earl Westmoreland, and his two wives: Margaret Stafford and Joan Beaufort.

What I hadn’t known before my visit is that it also contained the tomb of William Harry Vane, 1st Duke Cleveland,  sculpted by Richard Westmacott; one of his finest works.

Tomb of William Harry Vane, 1st Duke Cleveland

William Harry Vane, 1746-182, a great great grandson of King Charles II. William Harry’s paternal grandfather Henry Vane, 1705-1758, married Grace Stewart, the daughter of Charles Stewart, 1st Duke Southampton, the illegitimate son of King Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess Cleveland, 1640-1709.

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Effigy of William Harry Vane, 1st Duke Cleveland, 1766-1842, at St Mary’s Church, Staindrop, County, Durham. Sculpted by Richard Westmacott.

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The arms of William Harry Vane being Vane: three gauntlets sinister (left) indicating either illegitimacy or attainder, and Charles, Duke of Grafton, illegitimate son of King Charles II England differenced by a baton sinister to indicate illegitimacy.

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Ralph Neville, 1st Earl Westmoreland

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl Westmoreland, 1364-1425, the progenitor of the Neville family as a result of his having 22 children, 73 grandchildren, 153 great grandchildren and 211 great great grandchildren. A number only exceeded by John of Gaunt.

Ralph’s first wife Margaret Stafford, 1364-1396, was his second cousin once removed and his fourth cousin. They had eight children together.

After Margaret’s death in 1396 he married Joan Beaufort, 1379-1440, granddaughter of Edward III. She and Ralph had fourteen children together.

Given the number of descendants it is not surprising that some were Lancastrians and some Yorkist during the Wars of the Roses:

John, Baron Neville, 1410-1461. Lancastrian. Killed at Battle of Towton.

Humphrey of Brancepeth, c 1439-1469. Lancastrian. Beheaded.

Charles -1449 brother of Humphrey). Lancastrian. Beheaded.

Ralph Dacre, 1st Baron Gilsland, 1412-1461. Lancastrian. Killed at Battle of Towton.

John “Butcher” Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford, 1435-1461. Lancastrian. Killed at Battle of Dintingdale.

Roger Clifford, 1447-1485. Beheaded.

Richard Neville, 5th Earl Salisbury, 1400-1460. Yorkist. Beheaded after Battle of Wakefield.

Richard “Kingmaker Neville, Earl Warwick and Salisbury, 1428-1471. Yorkist and Lancastrian. Killed Battle of Barnet.

His descendants also include King Edward IV, King Richard III, King Henry VIII, King Edward VI, Queens Mary and Elizabeth, and all of the English and British monarchs since James I King England.

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Memorial to Sophia Poulett

Sophia being the wife of William Harry’s son Henry, 2nd Duke Cleveland.

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Richard Redman, 1350-1426, All Saints Harewood

Another of the six fine chest tombs at All Saints, Harewood: Richard Redman, 1350-1426 and his wife Elizabeth Aldeburgh, died 1426.

Soldier and High Sheriff he campaigned with Richard II in Ireland. In 1405 he was commissioned to fine members of the gentry associated with the rebellion by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. He was, briefly, Speaker of the House of Commons during the eight day Parliament that voted supplies to continue the war in France shortly after the Battle of Agincourt in Oct 1415.

His armour of Period III: Lancastrian or Early Plate. An Esses collar although interwoven with another device. Moustache. Bascinet with orle. Helm with horses head crest; no mantling. Eagle buckle on belt. Feet on lion.

She wearing an elaborate crespine headdress.

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Edward Redman, 1510, All Saints, Harewood

Another of the six fine chest tombs at All Saints, Harewood.

Edward Redman, died 1510, and his wife Elizabeth Huddlestone.

He originally a supporter of York, in particular Richard III. He was subject to the general pardon issued by Henry VII after the Battle of Bosworth.

Edward and Elizabeth had four children only one of whom, Henry, had a child: Joan who married Marmaduke Gascoigne, son of William Gascoigne.

He wearing armour of Period V: Early Tudor. Simpler, reduced fluting. The pauldrons formed from one smooth plate with a bold projection to protect the neck, typically larger on the left. A Tudor collar of Esses and Roses combining the SS of Lancaster and the White Rose of York following the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Shaved, hair “bobbed”, longer than in Period IV, comes down to the shoulder. Head resting on a helm with mantling and a fine crest of what appears to be a dogs head.

She wearing a simple  headdress with veil falling low on the shoulders.

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William Gascoigne, 1452-1487, All Saints, Harewood

Another of the six chest tombs from All Saints, Harewood, another William Gascoigne, 1452-1487, with his wife Margaret Percy, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Northumberland.

They, William and Margaret, half second cousins once removed.

William a 4 x Great Grandson of Edward III through his mother Joan Neville, great granddaughter of Ralph, 1st Earl Westmoreland, and his second wife Joan Beaufort, grand daughter of Edward III.

William and Margaret had twelve children, three sons, nine daughters.

A alabaster chest tomb with a fine array of weepers, possibly their children although too many, women one side, nine men the other, one of which appears with angels wings, possible children and spouses.

He wearing a variation of the Lancastrian Esses collar being SOSOS. Clean shaved, no bascinet, his head resting on a helm with bulls head creat. His armour plate over which there appears to be, unusually for the period, a tabard. The left hand side of his face appears disfigured. Possibly a war wound.

She wearing the widow’s barbe.

Note. Gardner describes this monument as being to Sir John Nevill of Womersley, died 1482.

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Yoxall Church, Staffordshire

Popped into Yoxall Church on the way back from a trip to Lichfield.

A fine monument to Humphrey Welles and his wife Mary Chetwynd. Elizabethan.

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A very fine monument to Admiral Henry Meynell (1865) by Carlo Marochetti.

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Memorial to James Thompson VC:

For gallant conduct in saving the life of his captain (Captain Wilton), on the 9th of July, 1857, by dashing forward to his relief, when that officer was surrounded by a party of Ghazees, who made a sudden rush on him, from a serai – and killing two of them before further assistance could reach. Also recommended for conspicuous conduct throughout the siege.[2]

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Queen Anne Succession

Queen Anne died 01 Aug 1714. As a result of an Act of Parliament Catholics were excluded from the succession. The Kingdom passed to King George I, the first Hanoverian.

Twenty seven people were excluded from the succession for being Catholic including Louis XV King France 1710-1774 and two future Kings of Spain: Louis I King Spain 1707-1724 and Ferdinand VI King Spain 1713-1759.

Those excluded are shown RED in the list below.

All of King James VI King Scotland I King England and Ireland 1566-1625 descendants to seven generations ie 5 x Great Grandchildren added to The History Database.

 

James VI King Scotland I King England and Ireland 1566-1625
      Henry Frederick Stewart Prince Wales 1594-1612
      Elizabeth Stewart 1596-1662
            Frederick Henry Palatinate-Simmern 1614-1629
            Charles Louis Palatinate-Simmern 1617-1680
                  Charles Palatinate-Simmern 1651-1685
                  Elizabeth Charlotte Palatinate-Simmern 1652-1722
                        Alexandre Louis Bourbon 1673-1676
                        Philippe Bourbon II Duke Orléans 1674-1723
                              Marie Isabella Bourbon 1693-1694
                              Marie Louise Élisabeth Bourbon 1695-1719
                              Louise Adélaïde Bourbon 1698-1743
                              Charlotte Aglaé Bourbon 1700-1761
                              Louis Bourbon Duke Orléans 1703-1752
                                    Louis Philippe The Fat Bourbon I Duke Orléans 1725-1785
                                    Louise Marie Bourbon 1726-1728
                              Louise Élisabeth Bourbon 1709-1742
                              Philippine Élisabeth Bourbon 1714-1734
                              Louise Diane Bourbon 1716-1736
                        Élisabeth Charlotte Bourbon 1676-1744
                              Léopold Lorraine 1699-1700
                              Elisabeth Charlotte Lorraine 1700-1711
                              Louise Christine Lorraine 1701-1701
                              Marie Gabrièle Charlotte Lorraine 1702-1711
                              Louis Lorraine 1704-1711
                              Josepha Gabrièle Lorraine 1705-1708
                              Gabrièle Louise Lorraine 1706-1710
                              Léopold Clement Charles Lorraine 1707-1723
                              Francis Stephen Lorraine 1708-1765
                              Eléonore Lorraine -1710
                              Elisabeth Therese Lorraine 1711-1741
                                    Carlo Francesco Savoy 1738-1745
                                    Maria Vittoria Margherita Savoy 1740-1742
                                    Benedetto Maria Maurizio Savoy 1741-1808
                              Charles Alexander Emmanuel Lorraine 1712-1780
                              Anne Charlotte Lorraine 1714-1773
                  Friedrich Palatinate-Simmern 1653-1653
            Elisabeth Palatinate-Simmern 1612-1680
            Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682
                  Ruperta Palatinate-Simmern 1671-1740
            Maurice Palatinate-Simmern 1620-1652
            Louise Hollandine Palatinate-Simmern 1622-1709
            Louis Palatinate-Simmern 1623-1624
            Edward Palatinate-Simmern 1625-1663
                  Luise Marie Palatinate-Simmern 1647-1679
                        Louis Otto Count Salm-Salm 1674-1738
                              Dorothea Franziska Agnes Salm 1702-1751
                              Elisabeth Alexandrine Felicite Charlotte Gotfriede Salm 1704-1739
                              Christine Anna Luise Oswaldine Salm 1707-1775
                        Louise Salm
                        Louise Apollonia Salm
                        Eleanor Chirstina Salm
                  Anne Henriette Palatinate-Simmern 1648-1723
                  Benedicta Henrietta Palatinate-Simmern 1652-1730
            Henriette Marie Palatinate-Simmern 1626-1651
            Philip Frederick Palatinate-Simmern 1627-1650
            Charlotte Palatinate-Simmern 1628-1631
            Sophia Palatinate-Simmern 1630-1714
                  George Louis I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727
                        George Augustus II King Great Britain and Ireland 1683-1760
                              Frederick Hanover 1707-1751
                                    Augusta Hanover 1737-1813
                                    George William Frederick III King Great Britain and Ireland 1738-1820
                                          George IV King United Kingdom 1762-1830
                                          Frederick Hanover
                                          William IV King United Kingdom 1765-1837
                                          Charlotte Hanover
                                          Edward Hanover 1st Duke Kent and Strathearn 1767-1820
                                          Augusta Sophia Hanover
                                          Elizabeth Hanover
                                          Ernest Augustus King Hanover 1771-1851
                                          Augustus Frederick Hanover 1st Duke Sussex 1773-1843
                                          Adolphus Hanover 1st Duke Cambridge 1774-1850
                                          Mary Hanover
                                          Sophia Hanover
                                          Octavius Hanover
                                          Alfred Hanover
                                          Amelia Hanover
                                    Edward Hanover Duke York 1739-1767
                                    Elizabeth Hanover 1741-1759
                                    William Henry Hanover 1st Duke Gloucester and Edinburgh 1743-1805
                                    Henry Hanover 1745-1790
                                    Louisa Hanover 1749-1768
                                    Frederick Hanover 1750-1765
                                    Caroline Matilda Hanover 1751-1775
                              Anne Hanover 1709-1759
                              Amelia Hanover 1711-1786
                              Caroline Hanover 1713-1757
                              Stillborn Hanover
                              George William Hanover 1717-1718
                              Miscarriage Hanover 1718-
                              William Hanover 1st Duke Cumberland 1721-1765
                              Mary Hanover 1723-1772
                              Louisa Hanover 1724-1751
                        Sophia Dorothea Hanover 1687-1757
                        Anne aka Louise Sophia Schulenburg 1692-1773
                        Petronilla aka Melusina Schulenburg 1693-1778
                        Margarethe Gertrud von Oeynhausen Schulenburg 1701-1726
                  Frederick Augustus Hanover 1661-1690
                  Maximilian  Hanover 1666-1726
                  Sophia Charlotte Hanover 1668-1705
                  Charles Philip Hanover 1669-1690
                  Christian Henry Hanover 1671-1703
                  Ernest Augustus Hanover 1674-1728
            Gustavus Palatinate-Simmern 1632-1641
      Margaret Stewart 1598-1600
      Charles I King England and Ireland 1600-1649
            Charles II King England and Ireland 1630-1685
                  Anne Stewart 1661-1722
                  Charles Stewart 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730
                        Grace Stewart 1697-1763
                              Charles Vane
                              Harriet Vane -1758
                              Mary Vane
                              Henry Vane 2nd Earl Darlington 1726-1792
                                    Grace Vane
                                    Elizabeth Vane
                                    William Harry Vane 1st Duke Cleveland 1766-1842
                                          Henry Vane 2nd Duke Cleveland 1788-1864
                                          Louisa Catherine Barbara Vane 1791-1821
                                          William Vane 3rd Duke Cleveland 1792-1864
                                          Caroline Vane 1795-1795
                                          Augusta Vane 1796-1874
                                          Arabella Vane 1801-1864
                                          Harry Vane 4th Duke Cleveland 1803-1891
                                          Laura Vane 1807-1882
                              Anne Vane 1726-1792
                              Frederick Vane 1732-
                              Raby Vane 1736-1769
                        William Stewart 3rd Duke Cleveland 1698-1774
                  Henry Stewart 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690
                        Charles Stewart 2nd Duke Grafton 1683-1757
                              Charles Henry Stewart 1714-1715
                              George Stewart 1715-1747
                              Augustus Stewart 1716-1741
                                    Augustus Stewart 3rd Duke Grafton 1735-1811
                                          Georgiana Stewart 1757-1799
                                          George Henry Stewart 4th Duke Grafton 1760-1844
                                          Charles Stewart 1764-1829
                                          Henry Stewart 1770-1828
                                          Frederick Stewart 1774-1774
                                          Augusta Stewart 1779-1839
                                          Frances Stewart 1780-1866
                                          William Stewart 1782-1857
                                          John Edward Stewart 1785-1856
                                          Charlotte Stewart 1785-1857
                                          Elizabeth Stewart 1785-1839
                                          Isabella Stewart -1866
                                    Charles Stewart 1st Baron Southampton 1737-1797
                                          George Stewart 2nd Baron Southampton 1761-1810
                                          Charles Stewart 1762-1831
                                          Henry Stewart 1765-1794
                                          Georgiana Stewart
                                          William Stewart 1773-1837
                              Charles Stewart 1718-
                              Caroline Stewart 1722-
                              Harriet Stewart 1723-
                              Isabella Stewart 1726-
                              Charles Stewart
                  Charlotte Stewart 1664-1718
                  George Stewart 1st Duchess Northumberland 1665-1716
            Mary Stewart 1631-1660
                  William of Orange III King England and Ireland 1650-1702
            James II King England and Ireland 1633-1701
                  Charles Stewart 1660-1661
                  Mary II Queen England and Ireland 1662-1694
                  James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667
                  Anne I Queen England and Ireland -1714
                  Charles Stewart 1666-1667
                  Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671
                  Isabel Stewart 1676-1681
                  Charles Stewart 1677-1677
                  James Old Pretender Stewart 1688-1766
                        Charles Edward Bonnie Prince Charlie Stewart 1720-1788
                        Cardinal Henry Benedict Stewart 1725-1807
                  Louisa Maria Teresa Stewart 1692-1712
            Henry Stewart Duke Gloucester 1640-1660
            Henrietta Stewart 1644-1670
                  Marie Louise Bourbon 1662-1689
                  Miscarriage Bourbon 1663-
                  Philippe Charles Bourbon 1664-1666
                  Stillborn Bourbon 1665-
                  Miscarriage Bourbon 1668-
                  Anne Marie Bourbon 1669-1728
                        Maria Adelaide BBB Savoy 1685-1712
                              Louis Bourbon Duke Brittany 1704-1705
                              Louis Bourbon Duke Brittany 1707-1712
                              Louis XV King France 1710-1774
                        Maria Anna Savoy 1687-1690
                        Maria Luisa Savoy 1688-1714
                              Louis I King Spain 1707-1724
                              Philip Bourbon 1709-1709
                              Philip Bourbon 1712-1719
                              Ferdinand VI King Spain 1713-1759
                        Victor Amadeus Savoy 1699-1715
                        Charles Emmanuel III King Sardinia 1701-1773
                              Vittorio Amedeo Theodore Savoy 1723-1725
                              Victor Amadeus III King Sardinia 1726-1796
                                    Maria Anna Savoy
                              Eleonora Maria Teresa Savoy 1728-1781
                              Maria Luisa Gabriella Savoy 1729-1767
                              Maria Felicita Savoy 1730-1801
                              Emanuele Filiberto Savoy 1731-1735
                              Carlo Francesco Romualdo Savoy 1733-1733
                              Carlo Francesco Savoy 1738-1745
                              Maria Vittoria Margherita Savoy 1740-1742
                              Benedetto Maria Maurizio Savoy 1741-1808
                        Emanuele Philibert Savoy 1705-1705
      Robert Stewart 1602-1602
      Mary Stewart 1605-1607
      Sophia Stewart 1607-1607

How did Richard Neville become “Kingmaker”?

Richard Neville is known to history as “Kingmaker” as a result of his support for King Edward IV (York) and subsequent defection to King Henry IV (Lancaster) during the Wars of the Roses, and his marring his daughters into the Plantagenet family, both Lancaster and York.

Born in 1428, Richard Neville was the eldest son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury by right of his wife Alice Montagu, 5th Countess of Salisbury, daughter and only child of Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury.

Richard “Kingmaker” Neville was, therefore, heir to the Earldom of Salisbury at birth. That Earldom in itself wasn’t sufficient to give him the power necessary to influence events in the way he subsequently did.

In 1434 aged 6 he was betrothed to Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl Warwick, by his second marriage to Isabel Despencer, great grand-daughter of Edward III.

The Neville and Beauchamp families had close connections1.

Fate played Richard “Kingmaker” Neville a very generous hand when Henry Beauchamp, 14th Earl Warwick, his sister Cecily’s husband and his wife’s brother, died aged 21 in 1446.

Two years in 1448 later Henry 14th Earl of Warwick’s daughter Anne 15th Countess Warwick died, aged five (there is no report of suspicious circumstances).

Anne Beauchamp, Richard “Kingmaker” Neville’s wife, inherited the whole estate including the Earldom of Warwick and the Despencer inheritance2.

In June 1460 Richard Neville left Calais, landed at Sandwich (Kent), raised an army, took over London and captured King Henry VI at the Battle of Northampton, July 1460. He was now, literally, Kingmaker.

In 1462 (or before) Richard “Kingmaker” Neville’s mother Alice Montagu died; became 6th Earl of Salisbury.

Richard “Kingmaker” Neville owed his power to two women: his wife (Warwick) and his mother (Salisbury).

Fate had not finished with Richard Neville. His marriage produced two daughters, no sons.

Isabel married King Edward IV’s younger brother George, Duke of Clarence, who was subsequently executed for treason.

Anne married, firstly, Edward of Westminster, son of Henry VI, the Lancastrian heir, who was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury and secondly, Richard III King England.

Of these marriages no issue survived to adulthood. Richard’s Neville’s line ended with his daughters.

 

NOTES

1 Richard Beauchamp’s (13th Earl Warwick) only son and heir, Henry Beauchamp, 14th Earl Salisbury, married, in 1428, Richard Neville’s sister Cecily, in 1445.

1 Richard Beauchamp’s (13th Earl Warwick) daughter Elizabeth from his first marriage to Elizabeth Berkeley married George, 1st Baron Latimer, Richard “Kingmaker” Neville’s uncle (his father’ brother).

2 The inheritance was challenged by Anne’s three half-sisters who were married to John “Old Talbot” Talbot, the great knight of the Hundred Years War, Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke Somerset and George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer. The rancour following the court’s decision to award to a full sister before half-sisters was a contributing factor to the Wars of the Roses.